In Chichewa, the widely-spoken language of southern Malawi, being pregnant or “kunkhala ndi pakati” translates to being in the middle of life and death. For many pregnant Malawian women, however, death comes much sooner.
As the African country with the second highest maternal mortality ratio, Malawi is struggling to eradicate a crisis that in 2006 claimed the lives of would-be mothers at a rate of 807 deaths per 100,000 live births. And while 2006 figures showed an improvement on those of 2004 – 984 deaths per 100,000 live births – the 2010 Malawi Millennium Development Goals Report has already projected that Malawi will not achieve the targets of the fifth MDG to improve maternal health by 2015.
Contributing factors identified in the 2005 Ministry of Health (MoH) “Road Map for Accelerating the Reduction of Maternal and Neonatal Mortality and Morbidity in Malawi” include shortage of staff and weak human resource management, limited availability and utilisation of quality maternal health care services, and weak procurement and logistics systems for drugs, supplies and equipment. Underlying such problems of infrastructure and resources, the report reads, are harmful social and cultural beliefs and practices.
Naswit Chitalo of Namila Village in Traditional Authority (T/A) Mlilima in Chikhwawa District is easily able to recall a time when “most pregnant women were dying from pregnancy complications” because of social and cultural beliefs, which include the belief that the firstborn child should be delivered by a traditional birth attendant (TBA) in the home as opposed to a health facility.
“I actually know of three women we lost in 2009 because they sought the services of elderly women from the village instead of rushing to the hospital,” said Chitalo, adding that TBAs would use herbs to make pregnant women “feel so confident about the outcome of their pregnancy” that professional maternal health care would be neglected altogether.
According to Malawi Health Equity Network (MHEN) Executive Director Martha Kwataine, these kinds of social and cultural beliefs surrounding TBAs have done more harm than good when it comes to maternal mortality in Malawi.
“There have been several researches whose results have shown that traditional birth attendants have made cases on maternal death high because they are not properly equipped,” said Kwataine. “We tried to train them so that they should handle referral cases but they did not comply.”
President Joyce Banda has also added her voice to the case against TBAs; on June 18, after laying a foundation stone for a maternity holding shelter at Mulanje Hospital, the first of 130 holding shelters pledged as part of the Presidential Initiative on Safe Motherhood launched in April, Banda told TBAs to stop offering delivery services to expectant women.
“Traditional birth attendants must stop giving delivery services,” she said at the function, adding that “traditional birth attendants can have a good role to play… because they are experienced they can be referral point.”
News of the ban on TBAs has been met with both controversy and commendation throughout the country. But to women like Chitalo, the rationale behind the ban is not news at all; as one of the T/As where the Centre for Alternatives for Victimised Women and Children (CAVWC) has been working to realize the MoH Road Map objective of improving obstetric care, a new, “good role” for TBAs is already one of Mlilima’s best kept secrets.
According to CAVWC Project Officer Talimba Bandawe, women like Chitalo were trained to take on four main roles and responsibilities: referring pregnant women to antenatal facilities by carrying out door-to-door campaigns; educating women on family planning; collaborating with Village Health Committees to form Community Safe Motherhood Task Forces and conduct awareness-raising community meetings; and recording how many pregnant women deliver in the community or in a health facility.
“We depend on these Secret Women because they have been trained; they can convince a woman on the importance of delivery at a health facility with a skilled attendant, because in the rural areas they are used to having TBAs,” said Bandawe. “We’re trying to change that mindset – that anything could happen with a TBA so it’s better to deliver at a health facility.”
Bandawe said the women are called “Secret Women” because of the social and cultural beliefs and practices surrounding pregnancy in Malawi.
“When you talk about traditions and beliefs, the pregnant woman is vulnerable,” she said, adding that traditional beliefs in witchcraft scare some women off of sharing how many months they are into their pregnancy.
“The concept of Secret Women is based on that whatever you talk about with a Secret Woman should be kept confidential,” she continued. “Whatever issues that you discuss, the Secret Woman is not expected to go and disclose that anywhere because some of the things can be really private.”
According to Esnart Dzoma, who has been volunteering as a Secret Woman in Namila Village for two years, “the most important thing is confidentiality.”
“If I begin to shout that ‘so and so sought this help from me’ they will inform each other, and we will have the health problems that used to compound issues such as pregnancy again,” said Dzoma. “I have an obligation to help these women with compassion, and without malice… the secret to being an effective Secret Woman is to be open-minded.”
Based on principles of compassion and confidentiality, Bandawe said the Secret Women project has helped to address some of the harmful social and cultural beliefs and practices, “especially through the door-to-door campaigns” as pregnant women have been comforted by and more likely to accept confidential counselling.
“The Secret Women were really successful in that a number of women were referred to the hospital,” she said, adding that other Road Map interventions such as the provision of bicycle ambulances and village bylaws enforcing fines for births that take place outside of a health facility have also contributed to the success of the initiative.
The data collected by the Secret Women also speaks to their success; in 2009, when CAVWC was working to reach out to practicing TBAs and provide safe-birthing training and equipment, approximately 30 percent of pregnant women in the two T/As were reportedly giving birth at a health facility. In 2012, the Secret Women are reporting that 54 percent of pregnant women are now giving birth at a health facility.
But despite their success, Bandawe said that the new role for TBAs has not been implemented without resistance.
“Some women still resist the counseling of the Secret Women, and sometimes even the husband can be a challenge,” she said.
“There are some materials that the hospital recommends that you should have when you go to the hospital – a plastic paper, a razor blade and a basin. Some of the husbands don’t welcome this idea, so (the Secret Women) have a negative reception from some of the families.”
For their part, Bandawe said that CAVWC will “revive the Secret Women” by holding refresher training courses at the end of June.
“It is really important to have these sorts of people in the communities, mainly in the rural areas where literacy levels are low,” she said.
“Maybe after there has been a lot of sensitization, when everyone even in the rural communities is aware of the health benefits of delivering at the hospital and when we have managed to reduce the maternal mortality ratio, that’s when we can do without the Secret Women. But right now, they still have a major role to play.”
With files from Richard Chirombo and Madalitso Musa
Today is the last day I’ll set foot in the BNL-Blantyre office, but in order to catch as many of my co-workers as possible I said a semi-formal goodbye on Friday, June 29:
From here I’m boarding a bus to Nkhata Bay for one week of R&R, then Lilongwe from July 10 to 15 to do some final wrap-up work and say goodbye to Malawi in the city that this six-month experience first began.
The old “respect your elders” adage has customarily been an important part of Malawian culture, with the elderly able to depend on the social and economic support of their children and the community. However, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has had a crippling impact on family composition and tradition.
While the 2012 Malawi Country AIDS Response Progress Report found that from the start of the epidemic the number of deaths per annum had been reduced from nearly 100,000 to approximately 48,000 in 2010, the report also found that the number of children orphaned by AIDS has been on the rise.
Antenatal Clinic sero-surveys (surveys of blood serum) found that the number of children orphaned by AIDS increased from 576,458 in 2010 to 612,908 in 2011. And with over half of orphans being cared for by their grandparents, men like Lucius Dimiano of Kafupa Village will be celebrating their 70th birthday before that of their retirement.
At 68-years-old, Dimiano is still working three jobs to support six grandchildren orphaned by AIDS. He works as a guard from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. at a nearby church, goes to the garden to get maize for his family, weaves baskets to sell at the market and then, does it all over again.
“I cannot sleep, so it’s hard,” Dimiano said. “As a night guard, I need to always be awake because sometimes there are thieves in the dark.
In the same township of Chigumula, 55-year-old Mrs. Kandikole has also lost children to AIDS; her oldest daughter passed away in 2005 orphaning one grandchild, and her second oldest daughter passed away in 2010 orphaning three grandchildren.
“I’m the one who’s left looking out for them,” she said. “And not only those four; I have other grandchildren at my home who have only a mother but not a father.
“It’s very difficult for me to look after these children because I’m very old. I’m not working,” she continued. “Things are very expensive here in Malawi. Food is very expensive. I cannot manage to buy clothes for them. It is very difficult for me to take them to the hospital. To get good medicine, one needs to pay money at private hospitals, but I can’t manage to do all those things.”
Kandikole said she had been working at a nursery school, but had to quit when her daughters died because “(her) grandchildren were alone, so (she) had to look after these children all by (herself).”
She said her husband, 57, is still working as a telephone operator but “he makes very little money.”
“I don’t think he will be able to continue working much longer because he is now 57 years old and his body is very weak. He is very sick,” she said, adding that they both suffer from chronic bouts of malaria. “Before, we could manage to do all those things, but not now.”
Without the proper means or support, Kandikole said she “couldn’t manage to send (her) grandchildren to school, because when you want to send a child to school these days, even a government school, you need to buy a uniform, pencils, exercise books and the child needs to eat porridge.”
She said her grandchildren “were just staying at home” until they were accepted at the Jacaranda School for Orphans in Limbe, a free primary and secondary school in Malawi providing education and daily meals to orphans.
“If we did not have Jacaranda, these children would just be doing nothing at home,” she said. “They go to school without taking anything. If Jacaranda didn’t provide porridge I don’t know what we could do. Before, I thought my children would go to school up to college and help their children by themselves. But their deaths brought everything down.”
The late Nelley Daniel M’maligeni of Che Mboma Village suffered in the same way.
Deaf and blind, M’maligeni struggled to care for herself yet alone her grandson, Vincent, who was orphaned by AIDS. In March, at the age of 105, M’maligeni passed away and Vincent lost another primary caretaker.
M’maligeni’s daughter-in-law said her family was able to give extra food to M’maligeni and Vincent once a week, but “sometimes it (was) hard because there (was) not enough money. Sometimes M’maligeni (could) not eat.
“Sometimes we just (bought) panado, because panado is cheap,” she said.
Dimiano, Kandikole and M’maligeni are each representative of the ways that elderly Malawians are struggling to survive in the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. According to the Catholic University of Malawi’s December 2010 report “Impact of HIV and AIDS on the elderly: a case study of Chiladzulu district,” 59 percent of the enrolled elderly people had difficulty sourcing money for school uniforms, food and hospital bills for orphaned grandchildren; 55 percent were affected through the sickness and death of their children; and 22 percent had to halt their own development to take care of orphaned grandchildren, spending their reserved resources to make the lives of their grandchildren better while impoverishing themselves in the process.
When asked if there can be greater relief for elderly Malawians struggling to care for themselves and their orphaned grandchildren than panado, an over-the-counter pain medication, Finance Minister Ken Lipenga said that government has put in place safety net programmes that target both the elderly and other vulnerable people in the 2012/13 National Budget.
“These programmes are aimed at assisting the poorest in our communities to cope with life,” he said, adding that during the 2012/13 fiscal year programmes will be scaled up to capture those that may have fallen below the poverty line due to devaluation.
“A total of K27.5 billion has been provided for four programmes, mainly the Intensive Public Works Programme, the School Feeding Programme targeted towards 980,000 pupils in primary schools, the Schools Bursaries Programme targeting 16,480 needy students, and the Social Cash Transfer Programme which will reach over 30,000 households across the country.”
As Dimiano put it: “If I still had children that could help me, I could have just stayed home, but there is no one to help me, I’m only working because of my grandchildren.
“The only ones who can decide if I stop working are my grandchildren. Maybe they will see that we are very old and cannot work anymore and they will help us. But maybe they will finish school and go away.
“At the moment, I do not know.”
With files from Richard Chirombo.
When beggars should be choosers – How the promise of remuneration is heading off freedom of movement and free choice of employment in Malawi
Not long after cutting their teeth, North American children are encouraged to call forward their dreams and consider the question, “What do you want to be when you grow up?”
The kindergartners’ query is not a foreign concept in Malawi – in fact, up to December 2010 Blantyre Newspapers Limited’s (BNL) Saturday paper Malawi News regularly ran a “When I Grow Up” piece encouraging parents to help their children picture and pledge their ambition for the future.
At the same time the query is not yet ubiquitous – as a country that ranks in the lowest group on the Human Development Index (171 out of 187 countries in 2011), problems such as poverty and underdevelopment mean that for many, filling their stomach is difficult enough to do without considering the most fulfilling way to do it. And for 21-year-old Alinafe Phiri and her friends at the Nkhata Bay boma, it means that when you ask what they want, they simply tell you how it is instead.
According to Phiri, it isn’t uncommon for girls to be taken from their homes in Nkhata Bay to “faraway places” where they work as house girls. Others are taken from their homes to work in bars.
“This is considered normal because they are paid something at the end of the day,” she said. “Isn’t it normal for someone to be taken from their homes for work in faraway areas? What about those that leave their villages and work elsewhere in cities or otherwise?”
No mention is made of the use of force implicated in being taken to faraway places for work – a form of human trafficking – or of unrealized universal human rights to free movement and free choice of employment.
To raise awareness of such rights abuses, Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) held a public discussion at the Nkhata Bay Conference Centre on May 16. Three panellists were on hand: Youth Net and Counselling (YONECO) District Manager for Nkhata Bay Wezzie Mtonga, Nkhata Bay Police Station Community Policing Coordinator Brown Ngalu and NCA Programme Coordinator for Human Trafficking Habiba Osman.
During the discussion, Mtonga said that the area is a “hotspot of instances of human trafficking” for the purposes of labour, sexual exploitation, organ removal, or domestic servitude, and that Malawian women like Phiri are the most vulnerable to being victimised “because of their vulnerability when it comes to economic issues.”
“One of the reasons people fall victim to human trafficking is they are looking for greener pastures, and when they go there, things are different,” she said. “Malawians are vulnerable and they don’t have access to (anti-trafficking) laws.”
Osman, one of the commissioners involved in the drafting of an anti-trafficking bill in 2007, took the opportunity to stress that “the bill is ready, cabinet approved it, so what we need is parliamentarians to discuss it and pass it into law to give us a framework on what should be done and who should be doing what.”
“The problem is huge, it is diverse,” she said. “We need awareness, we need a lot of capacity building not only for the police but other service providers, and we also do need proper data collecting mechanisms.
“We do not have people coming to report on cases of human trafficking because they have been not been trained to collect data, they have not been trained to identify the victims; they have not been trained to identify the traffickers,” she continued. “Even our parliamentarians also need training on these issues.
“A new cabinet means that new people are in place. We need to put pressure on them to tackle these issues.”
In the interim, Osman cited Section 27 of the Malawi Constitution, which prohibits slavery, as a standing protection against human trafficking or “modern-day slavery.” She also cited the Employment Act, the Penal Code, the Corrupt Practices Act, Immigrations policies and the Corrupt Practices Act as statutes that criminalise certain transactions appearing in the various forms of trafficking.
Despite Malawi having adopted the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons in 2005 and making progress towards the guarantee of protections for children with the launch of a universal and compulsory birth registration process this March, the International Trade Union Confederation 2011 report for the World Trade Organization on Internationally Recognised Core Labour Standards in Malawi found that, “Trafficking is a problem and is conducted mainly for the purposes of forced labour for males and commercial sexual exploitation for females, as well as child trafficking which has also been steadily rising.”
“Typically the traffickers deceive their victims by offering them false promises of employment or education in the country of destination. In Malawi there are also estimated to be between 500 and 1500 women and children who are victims of internal trafficking,” reads the report.
“In 2009 the authorities arrested and prosecuted child traffickers who intended to deliver boys to cattle herders. Other usual destinations of internally trafficked persons are the tobacco plantations, domestic servitude, and small businesses.”
The United States Department of State 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report for Malawi further found that while government “is making significant efforts” the country still “does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking.”
“Adults in forced prostitution or forced labour and children exploited in domestic service and prostitution still did not receive adequate attention and the government prosecuted no such offences during the reporting period,” reads the report.
“While one trafficking offender received a short prison sentence, most convictions resulted in sentences of fines or out-of-court settlements with compensation to victims, both of which failed to provide an adequate deterrent.”
While comprehensive anti-trafficking law enforcement statistics were unavailable, the report found that some individual districts provided data on their actions, totalling 18 prosecutions, 11 of which concluded with convictions.
“Although the government prosecuted and convicted offenders using existing legislation, only one of nine convicted offenders served jail time and sentences varied widely across district courts,” the report continues. “Additionally, labour inspectors and child protection officers were trained to seek remuneration for workers in labour dispute cases – including forced labour – rather than to refer to law enforcement for prosecution.”
According to the report, “the government’s continued failure to seek criminal prosecution of forced labour offenses with significant prison sentences hinders an effective response to Malawi’s trafficking problem.”
In Malawi, the Inter-Ministerial Taskforce on Human Trafficking, led by the Ministry of Gender, Child Development and Community Development; the National Steering Committee on Orphans and Vulnerable Children; and the National Steering Committee on Child Labour have responsibility for trafficking issues.
Individuals who are aware of any incident of human trafficking in Malawi can contact the YONECO anonymous National Help Line for assistance by calling 8000-1234. YONECO encourages victims of human trafficking to call the help line as the centre will mobilise to free them and provide counselling and support.
With files from BNL-Mzuzu Bureau Chief Karen Msiska
With two hands gripping the steering wheel and the right turn signal flashing, 21-year-old Vanessa Nsona’s concentration does not waver when a minibus caller passing by her driver seat window lets out a shrill catcall – she is about to complete her third driving lesson and she’s part of an increasing number of Malawian women who are doing so.
According to Precious Kumbatila, the director of Blantyre’s Apule Driving School, female students in Malawi have been enrolling at increasingly higher numbers over recent years.
“When we opened in 2003, most of our students were male,” said Kumbatila. “Very few women came in.
“It was in 2004 when we had the second government that women started learning to drive,” he said. “At that time there were a lot of vehicles coming into the country; a lot of families were buying cars, and as a result, men started wanting their wives and their girl children to learn how to drive.”
Although Kumbatila said the poorly performing economy adversely affected enrolment numbers for both male and female students in 2011, he added that overall, the gender gap is narrowing. In 2008, 163 female students registered for driving lessons at Apule compared to 301 male students. In 2011, 190 female students registered for lessons compared to 282 male students.
For Nelly Kalunga, a single mother working full-time and currently taking driving lessons at Apule, learning to drive is a “privilege” and will mean a new skill set, new opportunities and economic empowerment.
“Nowadays, women are given chances to do what men do,” Kalunga said. “I decided to start driving because I want to be like the men who are driving.
“If I have a driving license, that means I can do any work that men can do, I’ll have better chances of winning other jobs,” she said. “Myself, I want try to be like the men who work in peacekeeping.”
Kalunga said the jobs that she will be qualified for once she learns how to drive are higher paying and that “the more you learn, the more you can get good things.”
“We used to think that driving was only for men and not for women, but nowadays we’ve seen that even women can drive,” she said. “I think we can be 50/50 with men if most women can drive.”
However, according to Kumbatila, still “very few women can come and pay for lessons on their own” like Kalunga.
At Apule, registration for the 40 required driving lessons costs MK45,000 (CAD180). With the additional costs of the MK4,000 (CAD16) provisionary license, booking a road test for MK4,000 and MK8,000 (CAD32) for the full license if you pass, learning to drive costs over MK60,000 (CAD240) in total.
“It’s the men that pay for the women,” said Kumbatila. “Either their husbands, their boyfriends or workmates. They are trying to push the women to learn how to drive so that they can do their chores on their own.”
Nancy Nyirende is one such woman. A housewife and stay-at-home mother, Nyirende began taking driving lessons at Apule in March after her husband, who has been driving since 2001, decided to register her and pay for her.
“We have two cars now so he wanted me to escort my sons to school,” said Nyirende, adding that none of her female friends drive “because they are poor.”
Despite these roadblocks to closing the gender gap between male and female drivers, Kumbatila said he believes the slowly but surely increasing number of female drivers is steering Malawi in the right direction.
“It is imperative that women drive because driving lifts people’s lives,” he said. “In my mother’s day she was just at home for us, cooking at home. But nowadays [women] can have opportunities. If a woman can improve herself by learning to drive she can get the same kind of opportunities as men. If more women drive, it will empower this country.”
According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI), Malawi was ranked 60 out of 102 countries in the 2009 SIGI and ranked 38 out of 86 in the 2012 SIGI.
In 2011, the Human Development Index for Malawi was 0.400, placing the country at 171 out of 187 countries. For the Gender Inequality Index Malawi received a score of 0.594, placing the country at 120 out of 146 countries with data. Also in 2011, the World Economic Forum ranked Malawi 65 out of 135 countries in its 2011 Global Gender Gap Report, with a score of 0.6850 where 0 represents inequality and 1 represents equality.
By: Karissa Gall and Richard Chirombo
Criminology is not a subject well-suited to primary school students, but in the absence of a secure perimeter wall young learners at Nyambadwe Primary have been getting an untimely lesson in acts of trespassing, theft and vandalism.
According to school headmistress Charity Kathyanga, without a perimeter wall hundreds of people travelling between Nyambadwe, Blantyre and Ndirande, Malawi’s most populous township, have been cutting through the school grounds every day, disrupting the classes that are in progress.
“We have also people from Ndirande, who have stolen,” Kathyanga told The Sunday Times. “They would come up through here because it’s a shortcut. They run away through here because there is a police station.”
The school, originally built in 1974 by the Blantyre Lions Club, is bordered to the west by the prestigious St. Andrew’s International High School and to the east by the Ndirande police substation.
“The students, they get affected because when (the thieves) pass through, they stop listening to the teacher; they look at the (thieves),” explained Kathyanga. “Some pass through making a lot of noise, some pass through quarreling, and then the learners go to look and see what has happened outside, they hear the noise rather than hearing from their teacher.
“The noise is uncontrollable,” she continued. “The noise is sometimes caused by people taking a crime suspect to the police station. The people often use this as a shortcut, and suspects sometimes run away (from the police station) through this place.”
One of the school’s secondary students, Dave Phiri, confirmed that the foot traffic makes learning difficult.
“Without a wall, there are so many distractions,” Phiri said. “The situation of the toilets is another problem; I think it is not conducive to learning.”
Over the years the traffic has marked the school with more than an intersecting footpath – the unprotected school grounds have been vandalized and robbed and now lack adequate classrooms, electricity or sufficient sanitary facilities. At present, Nyambadwe’s 3,000 primary school students are being made to share the toilets that were already underserving the school’s 360 secondary school students.
According to Blantyre Lion Johnnie Nicolau, who has been working with school staff to rally support and render Nyambadwe conducive to learning despite the club having handed the institution to the Malawi government over two decades ago, it is impossible to replace electrical cables, repair toilets or furnish the classrooms until a secure perimeter wall is fully constructed.
“The electrical cables were cut, (thieves) stole the pipes, they stole everything,” Nicolau told The Sunday Times, adding that the toilets and electrical cables have been out of commission for over ten years. “Today, you fix up; tomorrow, they come and break the windows again.
“There’s no point in fixing these things up if, the next day, they’re going to vandalize them again. It happens at any time, be it day or night. Whatever is in there, they’re going to take whatever it is. We can’t do anything until we secure the school with a wall because there’s no point.”
To address the situation, Nicolau said that the Blantyre Lions have undertaken a multi-phase project to erect a secure wall around the school grounds and then refurbish the school itself.
Phase one of the project – the completion of the wall – has already begun with the Lions donating approximately K170,000 in cash and K130,000 in-kind.
While Kathyanga said that by beginning to enclose the school grounds with a perimeter wall “the noise has been minimized by 95 percent,” Nicolau emphasized that challenges still exist in completing the construction of the wall and restoration of the school.
He said that while the walls have “made a difference to the school immediately” they “haven’t been popular with the people.”
In fact, on a visit to the school on March 15 to appraise the progress of the project Nicolau along with the headmaster and support staff discovered that a hole had been created in a patch of existing wall. “It’s actually gotten worse,” said Nicolau after making the discovery. “Now they’ve come and made a hole over there. Then we’ll fix the hole up and they’ll come and make a hole in the middle. We can’t keep plugging the holes. We need to enclose the whole area.”
In the meantime, Kathyanga said the school has been forced to use money from the K200 that students pay for school fees to employ guards.
According to Nicolau, the school is “looking at about K50 million” to complete the project to secure and restore the school – approximately K15 million for the completion of the wall, K10 million for desks and chairs, K10 million to repair the toilets, K1 million to restore electricity, and K12 million to renovate dilapidated classrooms.
“We’re looking for someone to help us out,” he said, sounding an SOS to potential corporate partners. “Ten thousand dollars goes a long way.”
In 2002, the World Bank launched the Education for All (EFA) Fast Track Initiative (FTI) to help low-income countries meet the second MDG of achieving universal primary education.
In September 2009, the FTI Malawi Local Education Group produced a Draft Appraisal of the Government of Malawi’s Education Sector Plans, the 2008-2017 National Education Sector Plan (NESP) and 2009-2013 Education Sector Implementation Plan (ESIP).
In its overall comments, the appraisal found that the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology “continues to experience limited capacity in planning, procurement and financial management” and found there was “inadequate allocation of funds to education and proportion of resources to primary education” and a “limited capacity for school infrastructure development”.
“The budget allocation for education is still low when compared to other African countries,” reads the appraisal. “Total education public recurrent expenditures in the 2007/08 fiscal year represent(ed) 19.4% of total government recurrent expenditures. In the ten low-income African countries that most highly prioritize their education system, the share for education equals an average of 28.8%.”
In the newly announced 2012/3 budget, education was allocated K74.7 billion, about 22 percent of the budget.
According to the UN website for the MDG indicators, 91.3 percent of children of official primary school age in Malawi were enrolled in primary education in 2009, and only 59.2 percent of pupils starting Grade 1 reached the last grade of primary.
This article was originally published in The Sunday Times on June 10, 2012.
Malawi expects to see its GDP grow by 4.3 percent this year and 5.7 percent next year while inflation will remain in double digits, largely due to a recent devaluation of the kwacha, finance minister Ken Lipenga told parliament yesterday.
“Inflationary pressures in 2012 continued to rise, reflecting a loose fiscal and monetary stance. Coupled with the pass through from currency adjustments, we now estimate inflation in 2012 at 18.4 percent with the prospects of decelerating to 16.1 percent in 2013…” he said.
Malawi’s economy had been in a tailspin for about a year after former president Bingu wa Mutharika picked a fight with major donors that led a $121 million budget hole in the 2011/12 fiscal year.
But the new government installed in April has worked to restore aid flows with the finance minister Ken Lipenga saying that grants have for the 2012/13 budget increased by 140 percent compared…
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A couple of weeks back I had the privilege of being able to bring together a few of the leading lights in social media in eastern and southern Africa, for a discussion about the role of social media in health and rights activism. The panel formed part of a meeting titled OpenForum 2012 – Money, Power & Sex: The paradox of unequal growth. Organised by the Open Society Foundation for Southern Africa in collaboration with its sister Open Society Africa Foundations (OSIEA – Eastern Africa, OSF-South Africa and OSIWA – West Africa), the meeting brought together an eclectic mix of activists, academics, artists and policy-makers to talk about “the factors driving change on the continent and how these will influence the African democracy, development, human rights and governance agendas over the next decade” – to quote the conference programme. (Full disclosure – I work for the Open Society Foundations, in…
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Weekend Express coverage of some of the World Environment Day activity that is taking place in Malawi. More coverage to come as I’m working on a feature which will include coverage of this event, other events, and information on environmental issues affecting local human development and economic growth.
BY INNOCENT KUMCHEDWA
Minister of environment and climate change management Honorable MP Catherine Gotani Hara,on 5th June asked the citizens, the private sector and the civil society to put a combined effort in the achievement of the green economy.
The minister says this at Kalambo primary school in Area 25, when she presided over the function of the ‘world environment day’, which falls on 5th June. The day was set aside by the United Nations general assembly in 1972, and in Malawi, this year’s theme was “green economy: Does it include you?”
When speaking at the function, the minister acknowledged that the theme was sending a clear message that everybody can play a vital role in environment conservation and sustainable development.
“The theme sends a clear message that everyone is an important element of environmental conservation and sustainable development. It invites everybody to evaluate whether the efforts being taken by…
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